On the anniversary of the military security of the state border of the GDR

translated from the German Communist Party DKP website

On 13 August 2013 marks the day when the military security of the state border to West Berlin and West Germany was closed with the agreement of the allied socialist states of the Warsaw Treaty by the workers ‘and peasants’ power in the German Democratic Republic. With the resolute measures to secure the state border of the GDR planned imperialist aggression against the East was thwarted and saved the peace in Europe.Simultaneously operated by West Berlin and West Germany from continuing plunder of the GDR was brought to an end.

The 13th August 1961 can not be treated without seeing its history and the causes. Under the same point of today can only be what happened on the border between
the GDR and the FRG – that never, inner German border ‘was – in the rate between 1961 and 1989 – without blurring historical truths and succumbing to the zeitgeist.

Run by the FRG delegitimization of the GDR, criminal state ‘should be confirmed by the counter-revolution in 1989 by political criminal cases against citizens of the GDR. Defamation, criminalization and law enforcement, especially by members of the border troops, the National People’s Army, employees of the Stasi, lawyers and politicians of the GDR, in short, all that something with the border security against West Berlin and the FRG, the, Berlin Wall ‘and the’ border regime ‘ had to do. All these trials had one goal: to weigh evidence of the blame for the SED and the GDR.

Different developments after 1945 encouraged the contradictions in Germany

The confrontation between socialism and imperialism took on German soil after 1945 particularly sharp forms. The German imperialism had suffered with the military defeat of the fascist regime had hitherto been his worst defeat. With the establishment of a separate state for West Germany and with the help of U.S. imperialism took German imperialism a third attempt in 1949 to its political and economic hegemony in Europe. With the FRG was created and developed a state which bore all the hallmarks of aggressive German imperialism, which expanded from the world reaction as a main base of imperialism and as a spearhead against socialism in Europe and thus developed a dangerous nuisance of European security. Here, this state also operated the involvement of former fascist leaders from politics and business. Thus, the social progress in the FRG has been blocked and restored the power of the reactionary forces of the past.

In contrast, realized in the German Democratic Republic of the masses under the leadership of the SED by the antifascist democratic revolution and the socialist basic objective laws of our epoch. The new and future-determining in the world, socialism, had taken firm foothold here. In the history of the German working class, the German Democratic Republic was the greatest achievement of their struggle since the first program of the Communists in Germany – the Communist Manifesto. The objective process of demarcation between socialism and imperialism, from the irreconcilability of opposites between the two world systems, between working class
and the bourgeoisie and their ideologies results, therefore inevitably occurred in relation GDR / FRG after 1949 in a pointed shape to light.

While the BRD integrated with the seal on the division of Germany by the Treaty of Paris in 1955 as a final state into NATO, the GDR also developed into an independent, socialist state, which was an integral part of the socialist community. So little can be fire and water unite, so little was it between the socialist GDR and the FRG state monopoly convergence, convergence, and certainly not a political, give association ‘. This indisputable fact was the policy of the SED and the GDR government, we wore Communists always bill.

The counter-revolutionary efforts of the FRG leaders to eliminate the GDR was the successful building of socialism and the further change the balance of power, especially at the interface of the two opposite social systems, in favor of the forces of peace, democracy and socialism at all times of the existence the GDR an insurmountable wall opposite.

While everything necessary has been done to protect the socialist system in the GDR against all enemy attacks effectively and make untouchable for imperialism, originated and developed in West Germany, a country that had all the features of the aggressive German imperialism of the world Response expanded as a main base of imperialism and as a spearhead against socialism in Europe and thus developed a dangerous nuisance of European security. Here, this state also operated the involvement of former fascist leaders from politics and business. Thus, the social progress in the FRG has been blocked and restored the power of the reactionary forces of the past.

In contrast, the GDR was guided in its directional foreign policy of peace and relaxation of the enforcement of the Leninist principle of peaceful coexistence in relations between the GDR and the FRG.With more than 100 proposals to the FRG, the GDR government presented together with the Soviet Union in the years 1950-1961 the highest level of good will and understanding readiness for the day. “Back then we even kept the border open in the hope that there would be enough far-sighted politicians in Germany who opt for a realistic policy towards the GDR. The leading political parties in the Federal Republic, however, have taken advantage of the open border to the ruthless fight against the GDR. At the same time they did everything to strengthen the armed forces for offensive power against socialism. “(New Germany, 20.3.1970)

So in August 1961 was the moment when you had to say thus far and no further! Imperialism had to be been clearly demonstrated where the limits of his power are drawn after were operated by him for a long time major threats Diversion Act and military aggression preparations.

The policies and practices of imperialism, the FRG and West Berlin led to an acute threat to peace in Europe.

In early summer 1961, the rulers of the Bonn state believed to be so strong that they openly announced their robbery targets otherwise waiving the usual demagoguery. The infamous policy of the CDU resolution of 8 July 1961 openly called for the “incorporation of the Soviet zone in the NATO alliance.”

The so-called Research Council ‘of the Bonn government published on 7 July 1961 a direct expansion program. It said: “On the day of German reunification X communist command economy to be eliminated in Central Germany …”. (Bulletin of the Federal Government on 7 July 1961)

Cynically declared Strauss (CDU) in the newspaper Rheinische Post newspaper, Dusseldorf, 10 July 1961: “I think the military deterrent for a real policy of peace …”.

The military machine of Germany was the forcible annexation of the GDR set in motion. Let me give further evidence that are delivered speeches from leading West German politicians and other official statements from the period before the historical days in August 1961.

Here are the facts: On 30 June 1960 announced the Bonn Bundestag in a statement its commitment to the “reunification of Germany, when necessary to achieve even by military means”, ie the GDR, the FRG to affiliate.

On 19 August 1960 a memorandum of the generals of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces Bonner was published with the demand for nuclear armament of the FRG. (Memorandum of the Joint Staff of the Armed Forces from 19/08/1960)

For the kindling of a war hysteria, the country teams organized in the summer of 1960 in Germany, and especially in West Berlin, several large-scale, home meetings’ and marches, which called for the liquidation of the GDR and territorial claims to the Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of Poland and Czechoslovakia were asked.
(Information, No. 59, 1971/6 – 10th anniversary of the argument for securing the state border)

On 30 September 1960, the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany announced the trade agreement with the GDR 31 Dezember 1960.

On 13 April 1960, Chancellor Adenauer, according to Kennedy’s question about a possible deployment of the Bundeswehr, dpa ‘explained: if American troops should be involved in trying to open the access routes to Berlin in combat, then would the Federal Republic “in the context of its NATO set-commitment, the Bundeswehr in March “.

On 10 May 1961 addressed the North Atlantic Council meeting in Oslo with questions of “reunification” of Germany. It was decided that if needed, quotas Bundeswehr “… the solution of national tasks …” to lay off temporarily from NATO command.

On 30 June 1961 had the Nazi army and General Heusinger in the ‘Neue Zürcher Zeitung’ blurted out, “seven divisions were ready to immediately execute any mission against the East …” (information, No. 59, 1971/6 – reasoning on the 10th anniversary of the securing the state border).

9 July 1961 was then in the ‘announced openly Bonner Rundschau, the Western powers were able to “… all means of war, the nervous and the shooting war to apply …”. This not only conventional forces and armaments would include “… but also the sub-rooting, the stirring up of the internal resistance, working underground, the decomposition of order, sabotage, disruption of traffic and business to the disobedience of the riot …”. (Bonner Rundschau, June 9, 1961)

On 6 July 1961 published the so-called Federal Ministry for All-German Affairs in his report a detailed plan (“horror Plan”), which shows how the economic and social foundations of the GDR should be eliminated. (Annual Report of the Research Advisory Board .. from 07.06.1961)

In the West, efforts were made to revise the results of World War II. In this sense, declared March 7 July 1961, the then Minister of War Bonner Strauss: “… For us, the second world war is not yet over …” – (Bavarian folk Echo, 07/07/1961)

For late August / early September 1961 two large maneuvers of the West German Bundeswehr were announced and prepared at the borders of the GDR.

At a press conference in New York, told the West German Minister of War Strauss, “… that the West must be prepared for a kind of civil war …”, and emphasized the role of West Berlin as an igniter for the intended conflict. He demanded: “… the Berlin crisis to the
sharpen logical conclusion … “. (Historical Notebooks, Central Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences, No. 17, p 15)

9 August 1961 the inspected served in the fascist Wehrmacht and the Knight Cross’ decorated General, later commander of NATO land forces in Central Europe, Speidel, its waiting on the border with East Germany West German divisions.

The then Chancellor Adenauer stated in many comments that the West German government “… will never recognize the existence of the GDR …”. He claimed that the West German government was the only legitimate government for the whole of Germany, and called for the elimination of government of the GDR on. The contents of all these opinions coincide with Adenauer’s government declaration of 7 April 1954, “… that there is only one German state, has given and will give, and that it is solely the institutions of the Federal Republic of representing these never defunct German state …”.
(SBZ – Archive, Cologne, April 20, 1954, pp. 112)

However, in a Adenauer was right: This country, with its Nazi past is never set, this successor to the III.Empire. All these orientations’ leading West German politicians and military were accompanied by espionage and diversionary acts of intelligence agents and organizations of the Federal Republic of Germany against the German Democratic Republic. These included sabotage attacks on transportation and traffic facilities and for the supply of the population, and Diversion Act to companies in the industry and agriculture of the GDR.

War was factored

Taking advantage of its NATO membership and the lack of a peace treaty with the GDR, the GDR should be forced by economic, political and military pressure from the construction of socialism. This was the strategic concept of the class enemy. The outcome of the Second World War lost for German imperialism resources in the East should be even then recaptured. These were the intense and broad-based Emollient and coup attempts particularly from West Berlin to create the conditions for a lightning raid on the army to East Germany.

The representatives of West German monopoly capital fell into the illusory idea that the Soviet Union would be brought on by threats and extortion attempts by NATO to watch this imperialist concept idly.

Mid-year 1961 operating Bonn provocations on the top. It stirred up the war hysteria, trying to create panic in the GDR. The fire was blown in West Berlin. Poaching and trafficking fueled, head-hunting, extortion, kidnapping, and Wühlaktionen pogrom agitation were in full swing. On 20 July 1961 SPD-Brandt announced on militants meeting in Munich that “(meaning the GDR), a rebellion in the zone will come.” (Information, No. 59, 1971/6 – reasoning on the 10th anniversary of the security of the state border)

In July 1961, the extension of the period of military service from 12 months to 18 months was announced in the Federal Republic of Germany. In West Berlin, began with the establishment of voluntary police reserve, a Civil War troop of about 6,000 men, who also belonged to the later West Berlin Mayor Diepgen (CDU) as one of the leaders of this force. The convening of 20,000 reservists was announced. 40,000 soldiers of the Bundeswehr, which should come to the dismissal, was left to arms. The army reached so on 3 July 1961 a strength of 311,000 men Among them were 14,000 former professional soldiers of the fascist Wehrmacht. Together with the units of, territorial defense ‘of the Federal, police and riot police of the countries showed up for that time a number of about one million trained military forces at the disposal Bonner General Staff in 1961 for possible use.

The Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Pact stated in March 1961 that imperialist forces have intensified their provocative, focused on aggression measures, which require countermeasures to “hit back by all means necessary.” (Bavarian folk echo, Munich, March 8, 1952).

The threat of war, a nuclear war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union was extremely large. The armed forces of the two sides faced each other at that time on constant alert against. “That’s why the Wall was a decision of the Warsaw Pact and clearly resulted from the global political calculus and the military strategy of the Soviet Union. For the two superpowers after the wall was the verbal attacks on nuclear war. Vienna meeting their highest representatives of the “politically lesser evil,” Krenz said in his closing remarks in criminal proceedings before the Regional Court of Berlin in August 1997. (New Germany, August 19, 1997)

In the book, The borders of the GDR ‘(published edition ost, p 162 ff) describes the retired colonel of the NVA, Joachim Schunke, the military plans and preparations for a military strike against the GDR as follows: “NATO turned to a real fighting in the autumn in 1961. On 1 August 1961 said the commander of U.S. ground forces in Europe, the American army units on the continent in an increased readiness level.

FRG Defense Minister Strauss developed an immediate program for making the war readiness of the Armed Forces, which provided inter alia the full replenishment of the border associations and increasing the operational readiness of the alarm units with nuclear weapons carriers “. Joachim Schunke writes: “On a Note Mc. Namaras (then USVerteidigungsminister) that the Air Force could also be effective with conventional bombs, and the question of his deputy Nitze to Strauss, if he intended to use in the intervention phase atomic bombs or conventional bombs, said Strauss, both of the Air Force as well as ground troops would be used from the beginning nuclear weapons, otherwise you would be in a hopeless situation. ”

I want to repeat myself at this point aware that at this time just before a III. World War II and were the measures on 13 August 1961 peace was actually saved at the last minute. Not only the military situation was threatening to the GDR, but also the other targeted actions against the socialist state of our economy.

A dirty business: poaching and trafficking

The enticement of professionals and human trafficking were not only operated but openly admitted. So wrote the British newspaper, Sunday Telegraph ‘on 13 May 1961: “A wild campaign pours into each apartment (GDR), trade negotiations are used to ruin the five-year plan, financially Eastern Germany (meaning GDR) bled through the black market in East Mark.” In the ‘German newspaper business newspaper ‘, Cologne, 22 August 1961 can be read: “… When a young man is trained as a doctor, teacher, scientist, or skilled workers, he is lured by higher pay and subversive Offers in the West …”.

The organization of human trafficking with citizens of the German Democratic Republic was led government in West Germany and also by so-called private institutions – operate – with official connivance of official services. The West German government organized means of West Berlin in the interests of power politics of the West German and foreign monopolies the kidnapping. It also took a central position, the Federal Ministry for All-German Affairs’ a, under whose jurisdiction the coordination and consultation was with other bodies working in this field.

, New Germany ‘had in its edition of 21 July 1961, after that the IG Farben concern specifically to entice people from the GDR held several committees trafficking thus became part of the Cold War. The newspaper. One of these was the so-called emigrants committee dealt specifically with the poaching of scientists and was led by the leading IG Farben employees Dr. Krause and Dr. Niese.

Commuters’ – a special chapters on political crime

A special chapter of the political crime were those commuters’. The East Germans were working in West Berlin but lived in the GDR and also took advantage of all the social and other benefits of their state there.According to the Labour Office for West Berliners were up to 13 August 1961 63.000 inhabitants of the democratic Berlin and its suburbs worked in West Berlin.

If one of the net production value that a production worker in the GDR produced annually, based on sets and pulls the composition of poached to West Berlin workforce into consideration arose until 1961 an annual production loss for the GDR of approximately one billion marks the German central bank. In the estimate it has to be considered also, that such persons contributions to the social security funds of the GDR contributed that they paid low rents, though no taxes were paid to the GDR. In addition, the number of commuters took advantage of other benefits such as kindergartens, cheap transport and energy tariffs.(After, facts about West Berlin. ‘German military Verlag, Berlin, 1962, S.13I)

West Berlin – the advanced bridgehead

In the planning aggression of imperialism played the independent political unit West Berlin (in accordance with decisions of the Allied Powers, in Potsdam, July 17 – August 03, 1945), a special role. Front of this city from the cold war was fueled and international tensions were stoked. Numerous secret service dedicated groups and associations were established in West Berlin, such as the eastern office of the SPD, the fight against inhumanity group (KgU), or the investigation committee of liberal lawyers (UFJ).Supported and guided by such organizations, blowing up bridges and trains, and were run on operating systems in industry and agriculture of the GDR. Disorganization of the planning and management of the national economy, transit abuse, human smuggling, the extraction of contact persons for communication, few are called ‘activities’ of these agents and sabotage headquarters in West Berlin. Played a significant role in this network, the so-called Ministry for All-German Affairs and its affiliated, Research Council for issues of reunification of Germany ‘.

West Berlin from the beginning was a paradise of secret services, a playground and field provocation of all those forces which were against the Soviet Union and its allies, especially against the GDR, conspired.In the western part of the city there was the highest concentration of intelligence services of all kinds each direction using the intelligence and defense organs had been present and active. Secret Jungle ‘was a true also thereafter for the post-war years and designation.

“… The CIA built in 1949/50, in West Berlin, its largest operation outside the United States. Under the auspices of the American military governor Lucius D. Clay was West Berlin – by his own admission – the front-line city, for, Bridgehead ‘,’ thorn in the Soviet zone ‘develops. The West understood the city as half, Jack, with which the door can be pushed to the East ‘. Ernst Reuter: the then mayor, described his city half as the cheapest atomic bomb … “.

“… In February 1946, broadcast took in the American sector ‘(RIAS) on its activities. He took from the first minute to send a special place in the staged destabilization of the west side of East Germany a. He entertained proven a private spy and agent network and distinguished himself in the Inspirierung of diversion, sabotage and terrorism … ”

“… The Chairman of the Soviet Control Commission in Germany, Marshal WITschuikow stated in a letter of protest on 1 October 1952 to the High Commissioner of the United States for Germany, Donelly: West Berlin (is) to a greenhouse of espionage. Diversions and terrorist activity against the GDR ‘become. He referred to the, murder of activists of the production, mass poisoning, arson, Diversion Act in SOEs and in transport, Neubauer on farms and in farm buildings … “.

(The security edition Publisher east, p.94 ff)

West Berlin exchange offices – refuge for economic crime

In 1952, a West Berliner Zeitung explained the role of West Berlin: “We have often spoken of as the bastion of the fortress city of Berlin and the front hear talk that we have forgotten that we really are. The real special position
But Berlin is the city in front of the cold war. “(Der Tagesspiegel, February 3, 1952).

Alfons Dalma, columnist of the “Münchner Merkur” and intimate friend of Strauss, wrote on 24 June 1961 demanding: “… political, psychological and subversive preparations of the West, (to) from the sabotage of production and transport over a wave of strikes until completely passive resistance of the mass desertion and of the street demonstrations until complete dissolution of the People’s Army and to to get to the real popular uprising against the Soviet forces … “. (Münchner Merkur, Munich, June 24, 1961)

The front-line city, West Berlin ‘was “thorn in the flesh of the East”. (Historical Notebooks, Central Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences, No. 17, p 17) West Berlin had been made from the beginning to a festering boil in the body of the GDR. All regulations
the (East German) Magistrate of Greater Berlin to safeguard and secure the living conditions of the citizens of the GDR (ID presentation and purchase restrictions for West Berlin) were denounced by the West Berlin press as restriction of personal freedom and should the GDR criminalize before the world.

The illegality of artificial unlawful exchange rate was already evident from the fact that, “… while the course was set in West Berlin exchange offices until August 1961mit 1:4 to 1:5, the West German Institute for Economic Research, for example in October 1958 the purchasing power capacity of 1 , 00 West DM calculated to 1.35 M of the German Central Bank … “. (Quoted from: Horst Szcesny, documentation, 13 August 1961, Ten Years’, pp. 119 ff)

The facilities next to the poaching of West Berlin bureaux de change was a measure of economic disorder and looting of the East. The purposeful enforcement of economic laws in our economy was thereby greatly impaired.
Required to obtain this food, the GDR was forced to raise additional 31.4 million currency-DM for necessary imports. (Problems in the plan 1969 ‘, unit 17 was born in 1962 Issue 2, pp. 17 ff)

However, a series of internal conditions, such as contradictions in the economic development of our country have had an additional impact on the economy of the GDR. The Fifth Congress of the SED in 1958 agreed line of accelerated enforcement of prescribed orientations in economic policy led to stagnation phenomena, disproportionate, especially in the industrial production. In agriculture, a production failures occurred. The supply situation was exacerbated by the enormous flow of goods to West Berlin and also by the official influence of Germany, such as the unilateral termination of the trade agreement by the FRG government in the fall of 1960 and simultaneously launched embargo measures against our country.

Through the use of arbitrary dizziness rate and the existence of an open frontier, there was a large-scale smuggling of goods to West Berlin. Only in 1960, more than 2,300 tons of butter and 10,500 tons of meat were moved to West Berlin. This was enough to power 100,000 to 150,000 people a year.
Substantial losses for the trade of the GDR came through the buy-out of high-quality industrial goods (such as photo and optics, textiles, children’s clothes (which were very reasonably priced due to the high subsidies from the state budget of the GDR for West Berlin and other foreigners). These development forced to act, would not give it to yourself.

It remains to be seen: For all problems with which we had to struggle in our country, the Democratic Republic of the Federal Republic with its economic power but not negligible for, economic miracle ‘contributed.

Historical lies are not true – if it ever so often repeated

Repeatedly lies about history are brought into the world and it is the veil of oblivion over the period of the Cold War spread in Germany. The fight against the East was not only economically, but also politically and militarily. Adenauer
had early displayed the slogan that it was not him to the reunification of Germany, but of the “liberation of the Soviet zone.” He described the GDR. (, Germania – Quo Vadis’, sound document, trial balance of a German Rainer Schnabel and Dieter Arnold)

The conditions at the interface of the two world systems in Germany came to a more threatening. Have enough time plans for a military rolling over the GDR are uncovered and foiled by the security organs.Publications in the Western press organs were clearly indicates that the ‘big day’ was approaching. The danger of military escalation thickened.

All measures insane campaign against the GDR, espionage, sabotage and human trafficking should prepare the NATO aggression, it was the political and psychological aspects of the planned attack. In early summer 1961, the rulers of the Bonn state believed to be so strong that they openly announced their robbery targets otherwise leaving aside the usual demagogy. “Since the possibilities of the West seem exhausted to force a concession from the East in a peaceful way, leaving only the possibility of violent change in the status quo or abandon our own principles. The violent change is war with the aim of eliminating the latent danger of Bolshevism for the freedom of the western world to establish itself a new order … “. (Bundeswehr Research Rundschau, Munich, 1961, Issue 3)

In Bonn we dreamed of rich booty. Even then, plans have been announced, which was allowed to be given expressly approved in press bulletins of the FRG government. Then the Federal Republic should use a special authority in the GDR in order to eliminate the people’s property immediately “… by use contracts, by selling to West German corporations or by formation of a supervisory board.” (4th Annual Report of the Research Advisory Board of the sog.Ministeriums for All-German Affairs, the 6/7/1961) In other words, the later (post-1990) standard practice of squandering the national wealth of the GDR by the, trust and asset management of the Federal Republic of Germany ‘was a sense, vorempfunden’.

The results achieved in the general strengthening of the GDR and the further improvement of the working and living conditions of the population and the prospects of further development of our socialist society – as they were in, for example, in the directive to the five-year plan from 1971 to 1975 – are the safeguards of 13 August 1961 and the efforts for the common protection of socialism and peace inseparable.Irrevocably submit to the state was then terminated after the Bonn imperialists and their agencies could steal more than 120 billion dollars under the conditions of the Cold War and the open boundary of the population of the GDR until 1961 and our socialist society inflicted tremendous damage due to their disruptive actions. With the measures on 13 August 1961 was the economic laws of socialism are better placed to effect and develop the advantages of our socialist system more and more. After 13 August 1961 were achieved increasing success in our economy and in all areas of society, socialist consciousness of citizens developed on the stable foundations of the socialist system, and last but not least, the international authority of the GDR grew.

Of course, the measures were the 13 August 1961 not to everyone’s taste, especially since for many people – a sensitive and painful incision represented – and not just for commuters. But – even if some want to look different today: The 1961 measures have saved the peace in Europe. Imperialism had suffered a strategic defeat of magnitude. The then mayor of West Berlin, Willy Brandt (SPD) could only lament that “… the 13th Was a defeat that could not be explained away … “- August, at least for the Western powers – and for us. (Historical Notebooks, Central Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences, No. 17, p 17)

In fact, collapsed many hopes of the imperialists in those days. The dream of a – as a leading West German industrialist newspaper wrote – “reunification with garlands and waving flags and victorious advance of the German army through the Brandenburg Gate under martial music was melted away into nothingness.” There were no prospects for one, rollback ‘, for rolling back socialism.

How much the GDR on 13 measures August 1961, the statesmen of the West came on something, the fact that any such appointment on these days were not available ‘. President Kennedy sailed, Prime Minister Mc Millen duck hunting marsh, De Gaulle recovered to his summer home and Adenauer continued his campaign trip, as if nothing had happened. And the chairman of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Fulbrigth said, “… the East Germans have the right to close their border to West Berlin … introduce such an order … which ensures reliable security and effective control.” (Past Issues , Central Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences, No. 17, SAO)

Kurt Andrae *

* The author was a longtime employee in the office of Wilhelm Pieck and as a member of the Second Battalion of the Combat Groups of the Working Class in Berlin-Mitte direct witness of the events of 13August 1961. The full documentation under the title “It Goes to 13” by Kurt Andrae, Günther Bandel and Dr. Gerhard Neiber is available on the website of the East German Cabinet Bochum eV. The Author operates the Internet site www.kommunistische-standpunkte.de



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